General Dentistry is the award-winning, peer-reviewed journal of the Academy of General Dentistry. Published bimonthly, General Dentistry features clinical articles spanning the breadth of topics relevant to general dentists, including unique diagnostic case reports, novel solutions to common treatment dilemmas, evidence-based best practices, and the science to help you choose the best materials, technology and procedures for your patients and your practice.

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Table of Contents


  • Editorial The added value of mentorship

    Timothy F. Kosinski

    2024 July/August; 72(4):6.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Ethics Medical tourism: ethical considerations for patients and dentists

    Toni M. Roucka

    2024 July/August; 72(4):7-9.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Oral Diagnosis Yellowish tongue nodule and White tongue plaque

    Tanya M. Gibson

    2024 July/August; 72(4):78,80.
    Full Article (PDF)
  • Self-Instruction Answers Exercises No. GD513 and GD514 from the July/August 2023 issue

    2024 July/August; 72(4):79.

    Full Article (PDF)

Clinical Articles


    Endodontics Incidence of missed canals during endodontic treatment of maxillary first and second molars

    Michael Rodillo
    Rodrigo Sanches-Cunha
    Patricia Ann Bauer
    Suncica Travan
    Bruno Cavalcanti
    Neville McDonald

    This retrospective study used CBCT to quantify the number of missed canals during previous endodontic treatment in maxillary first and second molars needing retreatment. The second mesiobuccal canal was  missed most frequently (incidence = 49.38%). To lower the risk that canals will be missed, clinicians should consider the use of CBCT for maxillary molars before endodontic treatment.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):10-14.

    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. GD530
  • Endodontics Giving the pulp another chance: a case report of vital pulp therapy retreatment

    Hataichanok Machareonsap 
    Papimon Chompu-inwai 
    Nattakan Chaipattanawan 
    Chanika Manmontri

    About 49 months after partial pulpotomy of the mandibular right first molar in a 10-year-old boy, the tooth was diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis but responded positively to cold testing, and the pulp appeared clinically vital on direct inspection. Coronal pulpotomy was performed to maintain vitality in the young tooth, and successful resolution of the periapical lesion was observed 21 months later.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):16-22.

    Full Article (PDF)

    Endodontics Performance of a novel self-adhesive bulk-fill composite hybrid in endodontically treated maxillary premolars: analysis of fracture resistance and failure mode

    Fereshteh Shafiei
    Shadi Tivay
    Zahra Fattah

    This in vitro study assessed the effect of different application protocols on the fracture resistance of a self-adhesive composite hybrid material (Surefil one [SO]) in endodontically treated teeth. The use of SO with a capping layer of conventional composite provided the highest fracture resistance values but also the highest rate of unrestorable fractures. Self-cured SO showed similar fracture resistance but a higher rate of restorable fractures.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):23-29.

    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. GD531
  • Oral Medicine, Oral Diagnosis, Oral Pathology Globe-shaped central incisors in a patient with otodental syndrome

    Daniel Adrian Silva Souza
    Candice Belchior Duplat
    Rebeca Brasil Oliveira
    Frederico Sampaio Neves
    André Wilson Machado 
    Jean Nunes dos Santos

    Otodental syndrome is a rare combination of hearing loss and the presence of abnormal, globe-shaped teeth, usually the molars or canines. This report describes the case of a 12-year-old boy who had hearing loss and 2 supernumerary globe-shaped teeth in the sites of the permanent maxillary central incisors, an unusual location. Both anomalous teeth were extracted, allowing spontaneous eruption of the impacted permanent central incisors.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):31-36.

    Full Article (PDF)

    Basic Science Evaluation of artifacts produced by conventional dental materials in standard and high-resolution CBCT imaging

    Solmaz Valizadeh
    Mitra Ghazizadeh Ahsaie
    Zahra Sahebnasagh

    This study assessed the artifacts produced by common dental materials in CBCT images at standard and high resolutions. Only one material, a root canal sealer, showed a statistically significant reduction of artifacts at high resolution compared to standard resolution. For most materials, high resolution resulted in more artifacts, suggesting that standard resolution can be used in most CBCT examinations to reduce the radiation exposure of patients.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):37-42.

    Full Article (PDF)
    Self-Instruction Exercise No. GD532
  • Psychosocial Anxiety and Fear in Dentistry The effects of a therapy dog intervention on dental fear and anxiety in adult patients undergoing dental procedures: a pilot study

    Doris Lam
    Dominique A. D’Anthony
    Sara A. Chilcutt
    Amy O’Connor
    Andrew J. Avillo
    Nicholas J. Hamlin
    John E. Schmidt

    This pilot study assessed the effectiveness of therapy dogs in alleviating dental fear and anxiety. There were no significant differences in heart rate variability during dental procedures between patients who interacted with dogs prior to procedures and those who did not, but patients in the dog therapy group expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, suggesting that therapy dogs can effectively manage dental anxiety in adults with mild to moderate dental anxiety.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):44-49.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Restorative Dentistry Clinical guidelines for posterior semidirect composite resin restorations: a case report with a 17-month follow-up

    Franco Naoki Mezarina-Kanashiro
    Fernanda Furuse Ventura dos Santos
    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    The aims of this case report were to describe the extraoral semidirect restoration, a viable alternative to direct and indirect restorations for posterior teeth with extensive decay, and highlight its indications, advantages, and disadvantages. The semidirect procedure consists of tooth preparation for an indirect restoration, an alginate impression, restoration fabrication on a flexible cast, cementation, removal of excess cement, and occlusal adjustment. 

    2024 July/August; 72(4):50-53.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Restorative Dentistry Tribochemical silicoating of amalgam promotes effective amalgam-resin repairs

    Terence A. Imbery
    Anna Pitz
    Peter C. Moon
    Caroline K. Carrico

    This study investigated different surface treatment and adhesive agents to determine the most effective method for bonding composite resin to amalgam. Silicoated specimens had significantly higher mean bond strengths than specimens prepared with 2 different air particle abrasion protocols, and there were no differences in bond strengths among the adhesive subgroups in the silicoated group.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):54-57.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Orofacial Pain Ectopic sulcular pain: detection and treatment

    James V. Potter

    This case series is presented to propose and define a new term, ectopic sulcular pain, for a common condition in which patients experience acute or chronic posterior sulcular pain for which no physical cause can be identified. Ectopic sulcular pain presents with confusing symptoms that are common across a range of conditions, but this report offers diagnostic steps and a treatment protocol.  

    2024 July/August; 72(4):58-61.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Basic Science Pilot, open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating 4 oral hygiene regimens using a manual toothbrush, toothpaste, and mouthwash

    Serban Rosu
    Paola Benatti
    Salvatore Bianco
    Dionisio Franco Barattini
    Vincenzo Nobile
    Marta Mellai
    Dario Cattaneo 

    This pilot study was conducted to provide data for a future randomized control trial of a line of oral hygiene products containing a prebiotic and a paraprobiotic. Toothpastes, mouthwash, and a custom toothbrush were tested by 4 treatment groups, while a control group used their normal oral hygiene products. No between-group analyses of effectiveness were conducted, but all treatment groups showed significant decreases in plaque and gingival sensitivity after 28 days of use.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):62-71.

    Full Article (PDF)
  • Basic Science ChatGPT and dentistry: a step toward the future

    Lucas Lacerda de Souza
    Helder Antônio Rebelo Pontes
    Manoela Domingues Martins
    Felipe Paiva Fonseca
    Fernanda Viviane Mariano Brum Corrêa
    Fábio Luiz Coracin
    Syed Ali Khurram
    Ahmed Hagag
    Alan Roger Santos-Silva
    Pablo Agustin Vargas
    Márcio Ajudarte Lopes

    This article summarizes the history, development, and use of ChatGPT in dentistry. Areas of use include telemedicine, clinical decision-making, patient support, education, writing, and research. However, use of ChatGPT raises ethical and privacy concerns, and its imperfect accuracy means that the information it provides must be independently verified. ChatGPT can play a supportive role in dentistry, but it can never replace the judgment of dental professionals or students.

    2024 July/August; 72(4):72-77.

    Full Article (PDF)

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